Wednesday, October 29, 2008


HIV infection - is slowly progressing disease process caused by the prolonged presence in the body of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, characterized by a violation of the functions of the immune system resulting in the death of a patient.

AIDS Epidemiology

In a world of HIV infection is prevalent worldwide and has a pandemic. The number of infected more than 40 million people died of AIDS more than 25 million. The most affected are countries in Africa and Southeast Asia.

In eastern Europe, the ratio of HIV-infected women and men is 1:2. The dominant mode of transmission parenteral (dirty syringes and needles), 80% of registered AIDS patients, is injecting drug users. Steadily increasing share of sexual transmission. In some regions infitsirovannost persons engaged in prostitution to 60%, they often are drug users.

Immunodeficiency virus belongs to the family of retroviral (so called anti-Antiviral Therapy). Human infection occurs through the mucous membranes during sexual contact or by direct encounter the virus in the blood (injections, blood transfusions, etc.). After penetration into a virus affects various human cells, but its main target - the cells the immune system.

After a lengthy struggle going on the depletion of the human immune system, leading to the development of generalized infection and / or tumors, which almost did not occur in people with normal immunity, they are called opportunistic infections or AIDS-indicator diseases.

Clinical manifestations of AIDS

The disease runs a long time and is consistently 5 stages of development:

Stage acute illness. Developed through 0,5-3 months. After the infection. There is an increase in temperature, pharyngitis, limfodenopatik, the increase in liver and spleen, dyspeptic disorders, and rash. The duration of this phase of 2-3 weeks.

Stage asymptomatic carrier, lasts from 2 to 10 years or more. At this stage there may be a moderate increase lymph nodes.

Stage persistent generalized lymphatic (PGL). Accompanied by an increase in lymph nodes of two or more teams (not counting the inguinal) more than 1 cm (0.5 in children cm) in diameter, over 3 months.

Stage AIDS-associated complex (AK-AIDS, pre-AIDS).

Typical signs:

the loss of body weight> 10%

diarrhea> 1 month

fever> 1 month

cough> 1 month

generalized itching dermatitis


pharyngeal candidiasis

disseminated infection heretic

generalized lymphatic

Stage AIDS. Identified clinical signs of AIDS-indicator diseases

The most frequently develops pneumonia, candidiasis, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, herpesvirus or cytomegalovirus infection, atypical mikobakteroz, Kaposi sarcoma.

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